Issues concerning human leaming are among the critical topics in educational psychology, child development, and cognitive science. One central focus has been on the issue of why students learn and teachers teach best, and discovery leaming versus direct instruction has been a contented debate in modern educational theory and practice.(1)_____(2)______Stemmed from the theoretical perspective of constructivism, discovery leaning is believed to be a tool for facilitating the creation and organization of knowledge, as well as the transfer of that knowledge across different contexts.(3)______This approach contrasts with views that emphasize direct instruction from teacher to student. This entry addresses the following central issues: how discovery leaning is defined, the empirical evidence in favor of discovery leaning or direct instruction, and the facilitation of discovery and transfer.Discovery leaning is a general approach that involves minded participation and active inquiry in the acquisition of concepts and strategies.(4)______In classroom contexts, it refers to a form of curriculum which students are encouraged to actively explore and figure out the concepts,solutions, or strategies at the hand.(5)______(6)______A widely accepted idea is that discovery leaning is the least appropriate and effective approach to facilitate deep and lasting understanding.(7)______(8)_____This approach is often contrasted with direct instruction or expository leaming, which typically refers traditional, content-oriented methods that the instructor lectures to students.(9)______(10)______Leaming associated with direct instruction is often believed to be less engaged and less active, and thus less effective.
文章大意：本文讨论了人类学习中几个批判性问题里的一个中心问题：在现代教育的理论和实践中，发现式学习和直 接性指导，哪种方法能使教与学达到最佳效果。发现式学习是一种获取概念和策略的方法，它需要关注度 高的参与和积极性强的咨询；而直接性指导是指导师向学生授课的、以内容为导向的传统式教学方式。通 过对比研究可知，发现式学习是推进深^而持久理解的最合适、最有效的方法。
1.why→how语法错误。why表示原因，how表示方式。全文都在讨论学习方法以及哪种方法更有效， 故可推断这里应该是要表明“如何让教与学达到最佳效果”。此处用why语义不通。故应改为表示方式的 how。
3.Stemmed→Stemming语法错误。短语stem from和它的逻辑主语discovery leaming是主谓关系，所以应该用表示主动意义的现在分词形式。此句的意思为“发现式学习源于构威主义理论观点。被认为是 一种促进知识的创造和组织以及在不同语境或上下文间传递知识的工具。”
5.∧which→in语法错误。which引导的定语从句修饰先行词curriculum，从句中主谓宾等主要成分已齐 全，缺的是状语，in which表示“在这种课程形式中”，符合文意，故加上in。整句表示“在课堂环境 中，它（发现式学习）指的是一种鼓励学生积极探索、找出概念、解决方法或策略的课程形式”。
6.the→the词汇错误。at hand意思为“在手边，即将到来”，at the hand无此短语。故将此处的the删 掉。
7.least→most语篇错误。通读下文，可发现短文最后几句将发现式学习与直接性指导作比较，其中最后 一句还提到：人们认为直接性指导的学习效果要差一些，因此此处发现式学习效果应该不是“最差“，而 是“最佳”。故应该将least换成其反义词，并且对应最高级，改为most+此句的意思为“一个被广泛接受 的观点为：发现式学习是推进深入且持久理解的最合适、最有效的方法”。
9.refers∧→to词汇错误。which引导的定语从句是对先行词expository learning的解释说明，refer to 表示“指的是……；涉及”，放在此处符合句意，意为“直接性指导是指导师向学生授课的，以内容为导 向的传统式教学方式”。
Europe in the eleventh century underwent enormous social, technological, and economic changes, but this did not create a new Europe—it created two new ones. The north was developed as a rigidly hierarchical society in which status was determined, or was at least indicated, by the extent to which one owned, controlled, or labored on land; whereas the Mediterranean south developed a more fluid, and therefore more chaotic, world in which industry and commerce predominated and social status both reflected and resulted from the role that one played in the public life of the community. In other words, individual identity and social community in the north were established on a personal basis, whereas in the south they were established on a civic basis. By the start of the twelfth century, northern and southern Europe were very different places indeed, and the Europeans themselves noticed it and commented on it.
Political dominance belonged to the north. Germany, France, and England had large Populations and large armies that made them, in the political and military senses, the masters of Western Europe. Organized by the practices known collectively as feudalism, these kingdoms emerged as powerful states with sophisticated machineries of government. Their kings and queens were the leading figures of the age; their castles and cathedrals stood majestically on the landscape as symbols of their might; their armies both energized and defined the age. Moreover, feudal society showed a remarkable ability to adapt to new needs by encouraging the parallel development of domestic urban life and commercial networks; in some regions of the north, in fact, feudal society may even have developed in response to the start of the trends toward bigger cities. But southern Europe took the lead in economic and cultural life. Though the leading Mediterranean states were small in size, they were considerably wealthier than their northern counterparts. The Italian city of Palermo in the twelfth century, for example, alone generated four times the commercial tax revenue of the entire kingdom of England. Southern communities also possessed urbane, multilingual cultures that made them the intellectual and artistic leaders of the age. Levels of general literacy in the south far surpassed those of the north, and the people of the south put that learning to use on a large scale. Science, mathematics, poetry, law, historical writing, religious speculation, translation, and classical studies all began to flourish; throughout most of the twelfth century, most of the continent's best brains flocked to southern Europe.
So too did a lot of the north's soldiers. One of the central themes of the political history of the twelfth century was the continual effort by the northern kingdoms to extend their control southward in the hope of tapping into the Mediterranean bonanza. The German emperors starting with Otto I (936-973), for example, struggled ceaselessly to establish their control over the cities of northern Italy, since those cities generated more revenue than all of rural Germany combined. The kings of France used every means at their disposal to push the lower border of their kingdom to the Mediterranean shoreline. And the Normans who conquered and ruled England established outposts of Norman power in Sicily and the adjacent lands of southern Italy; the English kings also hoped or claimed at various times to be, either through money or marriage diplomacy, the rulers of several Mediterranean states. But as the northern world pressed southward, so too did some of the cultural norms and social mechanisms of the south expand northward. Over the course of the twelfth century, the feudal kingdoms witnessed a proliferation of cities modeled in large degree on those of the south. Contact with the merchants and financiers of the Mediterranean led to the development of northern industry and international trade (which helped to pay for many of the castles and cathedrals mentioned earlier). And education spread as well, culminating in the foundation of what is arguably medieval Europe's greatest invention: the university. The relationship of north and south was symbiotic, in other words, and the contrast between them was more one of differences in degree than of polar opposition.
1.The word "rigidly" in the passage is closest in meaning to
2.According to paragraph 1, which of the following was a deciding factor in a person's place in society in northern Europe at the end of the eleventh century?
A.Ownership of a commercial enterprise
B.Participation in social and technological changes
C.Role in public life in the community
D.Relationship to land through ownership or labor
3.Why does the author mention the "Italian city of Palermo" in the passage?
A.It had a population that spoke several different languages.
B.Its artists and intellectuals were famous both in the north and south.
C.Its commerce made it richer than a large northern country.
D.It was a relatively small and unimportant Mediterranean state.
4.Which of the following best describes the organization of paragraph 2?
A.A statement of fact followed by examples
B.A description followed by a contrasting description
C.A series of detailed comparisons
D.A logical argument
5.According to paragraph 3, northern Europe was influenced by the Mediterranean states in all of the following ways EXCEPT
A.the design of castles and cathedrals
B.the spread of education
C.the construction of cities
D.the development of industry and trade
Most people consider the landscape to be unchanging, but Earth is a dynamic body, and its surface is continually altering-slowly on the human time scale, but relatively rapidly when compared to the great age of Earth (about 4,500 billion years). There are two principal influences that shape the terrain: constructive processes such as uplift, which create new landscape features, and destructive forces such as erosion, which gradually wear away exposed landforms.
Hills and mountains are often regarded as the epitome of permanence, successfully resisting the destructive forces of nature, but in fact they tend to be relatively short-lived in geological terms. As a general rule, the higher a mountain is, the more recently it was formed; for example, the high mountains of the Himalayas are only about 50 million years old. Lower mountains tend to be older, and are often the eroded relics of much higher mountain chains. About 400 million years ago, when the present-day continents of North America and Europe were joined, the Caledonian mountain chain was the same size as the modern Himalayas. Today, however, the relics of the Caledonian orogeny (mountain-building period) exist as the comparatively low mountains of Greenland, the northern Appalachians in the United States, the Scottish Highlands, and the Norwegian coastal plateau.
The Earth's crust is thought to be divided into huge, movable segments, called plates, which float on a soft plastic layer of rock. Some mountains were formed as a result of these plates crashing into each other and forcing up the rock at the plate margins. In this process, sedimentary rocks that originally formed on the seabed may be folded upwards to altitudes of more than 26,000 feet. Other mountains may be raised by earthquakes, which fracture the Earth's crust and can displace enough rock to produce block mountains. A third type of mountain may be formed as a result of volcanic activity which occurs in regions of active fold mountain belts, such as in the Cascade Range of western North America.
The Cascades are made up of lavas and volcanic materials. Many of the peaks are extinct volcanoes.
Whatever the reason for mountain formation, as soon as land rises above sea level it is subjected to destructive forces. The exposed rocks are attacked by the various weather processes and gradually broken down into fragments, which are then carried away and later deposited as sediments. Thus, any landscape represents only a temporary stage in the continuous battle between the forces of uplift and those of erosion.
The weather, in its many forms, is the main agent of erosion. Rain washes away loose soil and penetrates cracks in the rocks. Carbon dioxide in the air reacts with the rainwater, forming a weak acid (carbonic acid) that may chemically attack the rocks. The rain seeps underground and the water may reappear later as springs. These springs are the sources of streams and rivers, which cut through the rocks and carry away debris from the mountains to the lowlands.
Under very cold conditions, rocks can be shattered by ice and frost. Glaciers may form in permanently cold areas, and these slowly moving masses of ice cut out valleys, carrying with them huge quantities of eroded rock debris. In dry areas the wind is the principal agent of erosion. It carries fine particles of sand, which bombard exposed rock surfaces, thereby wearing them into yet more sand. Even living things contribute to the formation of landscapes. Tree roots force their way into cracks in rocks and, in so doing, speed their splitting. In contrast, the roots of grasses and other small plants may help to hold loose soil fragments together, thereby helpingto prevent erosion by the wind.
1.According to paragraph 1, which of the following statements is true of changes in Earth's landscape?
A.They occur more often by uplift than by erosion
B.They occur only at special times.
C.They occur less frequently now than they once did.
D.They occur quickly in geological terms.
2.Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the mountains of the Himalayas?
A.Their current height is not an indication of their age.
B.At present, they are much higher than the mountains of the Caledonian range.
C.They were a uniform height about 400 million years ago.
D.They are not as high as the Caledonian mountains were 400 million years ago.
3.Why does the author mention Carbon dioxide in the passage?
A.To explain the origin of a chemical that can erode rocks
B.To contrast carbon dioxide with carbonic acid
C.To give an example of how rainwater penetrates soil
D.To argue for the desirability of preventing erosion
4.The word "seeps" in the passage is closest in meaning to
5.According to paragraph 6, which of the following is both a cause and result of erosion?
A "scientistic" view of language was dominant among philosophers and linguists who affected to develop a scientific analysis of human thought and behavior. in the early part of this century,Under the force of this view, it was perhaps inevitable that the art of rhetoric should pass from the status of being regarded as of questionable worth (because although it might be both a source of pleasure and a means to urge people to right action, it might also be a means to distort truth and a source of misguided action) to the status of being wholly condemned. If people are regarded only as machines guided by logic as they were be these "scientistic" thinkers, rhetoric is likely to be held in low regard: for the most obvious truth about rhetoric is that it speaks to the whole person. It presents its arguments first to the person as a rational being, because persuasive discourse, if honestly conceived, always has a basis in reasoning.
Logical argument is the plot, as it were, of any speech or essay that is respectfully intended to persuade people. Yet it is a characterizing feature of rhetoric that it goes beyond this and appeals to the parts of our nature that are involved in feeling, desiring, acting, and suffering. It recalls relevant instances of the emotional reactions of people to circumstances real or fictional—that are similar to our own circumstances. Such is the purpose of both historical accounts and fables in persuasive discourse: they indicate literally or symbolically how people may react emotionally, with hope or fear, to particular circumstances. A speech attempting to persuade people can achieve little unless it takes into account the aspect of their being related to such hopes and fears.
Rhetoric, then, is addressed to human beings living at particular times and in particular places.
From the point of view of rhetoric, we are not merely logical thinking machines, creatures abstracted from time and space. The study of rhetoric should therefore be considered the most humanistic of the humanities, since rhetoric is not directed only to our rational selves. It takes into account what the "scientistic" view leaves out. If it is a weakness to harbor feelings, then rhetoric may be thought of as dealing in weakness. But those who reject the idea of rhetoric because they believe it deals in lies and who at the same time hope to move people to action, must either be liars themselves or be very naive; pure logic has never been a motivating force unless it has been subordinated to human purposes, feelings, and desires, and thereby ceased to be pure logic.
1.According to the passage, to reject rhetoric and still hope to persuade people is
A.an aim of most speakers and writers
B.an indication either of dishonesty or of credulity
C.a way of displaying distrust of the audience's motives
D.a characteristic of most humanistic discourse
2.It can be inferred that in the late nineteenth century rhetoric was regarded as.
A.the only necessary element of persuasive discourse
B.a dubious art in at least two ways
C.an outmoded and tedious amplification of logic
D.an open offense to the rational mind
3.The passage suggests that the disparagement of rhetoric by some people can be traced to their.
A.reaction against science
B.lack of training in logic
C.desire to persuade people as completely as possible
D.misunderstanding of the use of the term "scientistic"
4.The passage suggests that a speech that attempts to persuade people to act is likely to fail ifit does NOT .
A.distort the truth a little to make it more acceptable to the audience
B.appeal to the self-interest as well as the humanitarianism of the audience
C.address listeners' emotions as well as their intellects
D.concede the logic of other points of view
5.The passage suggests that to consider people as "thinking machines" (line 41) is to consider them as .
A.beings separated from a historical context
B.replaceable parts of a larger social machine
C.more complex than other animals
D.liars rather than honest people
The age at which young children begin to make moral discriminations about harmful actions committed against themselves or others has been the focus of recent research into the moral development of children. Until recently, child psychologists supported pioneer developmentalist Jean. Piaget in his hypothesis that because of their immaturity, children under age seven do not take into account the inten- tions of a person committing accidental or deliberate harm, but rather simply assign punishment for transgressions on the basis of the magnitude of the negative consequences caused. According to Piaget, children under age seven occupy the first stage of moral development, which is characterized by moral absolutism (rules made by authorities must be obeyed) and imminent justice (if rules are broken, punishment will be meted out).
Until young children mature, their moral judgments are based entirely on the effect rather than the cause of a transgression. However, in recent research, Keasey found that six- year-old children not only distinguish between accidental and intentional harm, but also judge intentional harm as naughtier, regardless of the amount of damage produced. Both of these findings seem to indicate that children, at an earlier age than Piaget claimed, advance into the second stage of moral development, moral autonomy, in which they accept social rules but view them as more arbitrary than do children in the first stage.
Keasey's research raises two key questions for develop- mental psychologists about children under age seven: do they recognize justifications for harmful actions, and do they make distinctions between harmful acts that are preventable and those acts that have unforeseen harmful con- sequences? Studies indicate that justifications excusing harmful actions might include public duty,self defense, and provocation. For example, Nesdale and Rule concluded that children were capable of considering whether or not an aggressor's action was justified by public duty: five year olds reacted very differently to "Bonnie wrecks Ann's pretend house" depending on whether Bonnie did it "so somebody won't fall over it" or because Bonnie wanted "to make Ann feel bad.
" Thus, a child of five begins to under-stand that certain harmful actions, though intentional, can be justified; the constraints of moral absolutism no longer solely guide their judgments. Psychologists have determined that during kindergarten children learn to make subtle distinctions involving harm. Darley observed that among acts involving unintentional harm, six-year-old children just entering kindergarten could not differentiate between foreseeable, and thus preventable, harm and unforeseeable harm for which the perpetrator cannot be blamed. Seven months later, however, Darley found that these same children could make both distinctions, thus demonstrating that they had become morally autonomous.
1.Which of the following best describes the passage as a whole?
A.An outline for future research
B.An expanded definition of commonly misunderstood terms
C.An analysis of a dispute between two theorists
D.A discussion of research findings in an ongoing inquiry
E.A confirmation of an established authority's theory
2.According to the passage, Darley found that after seven months of kindergarten six year olds acquired which of the following abilities?
A.Differentiating between foreseeable and unforeseeable harm
B.Identifying with the perpetrator of a harmful action
C.Justifying harmful actions that result from provocation
D.Evaluating the magnitude of negative consequences resulting from the breaking of rules
E.Recognizing the difference between moral absolutism and moral autonomy
some educators hold that the best teach is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones. to some extent,do u agree or disagree.